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ҵİʿ22ǯ722󻲵ıİ̾ǽˤıͽѰȬɰ챧ȤդѤȤɤפޤȤ򤤤ޤΤǵȤˤޤѤʤ顢ȯʪĤ򤫤⤷ƤȤΤޤǤ

ͽѰǤϤθդΰѤȤʤạ̈ΤϡμФۤΩäϺ̳꤬֤θդΤäƤ͡󤲤ơפȵİ˸ƤӤȤꤷΤϤ鷺2̾ۤɡξ˴դߡȬɰ챧ȤդϤǤ˺줿դʤΤǤȽǤΤϰ°פʤȤξˤİϰʤܵڤܿͤˤٶƤ餤ǥȬɰ챧Ȥդ黿ǤȽ褦ûŪʹͤȿ̶դȤƲȤ
ώȬɰ챧ȤդȤä
ͽѰǤȯΰտޤܿͤ
ηкONLINE2015ǯ0405
ıİ
̱ޤλһİ316ͽѰȯȬɰ챧פˤʤäƤ롣ΥǤʤס319īʹˤֿάסƱʹˡճѥȬɰ챧ٹȯס327ʹˤʤɡ٥ϤΥǥƤȽ
ε󤸤褦ˡϷܤ򻾤ƤΤʤȬɰ챧פȤäΤʲܿͤΰտޤ롣ʹꡧ㡼ʥꥹȡҡ

ͽѰǤλȯˤĤơ¿餴ո򤤤ޤ򤭤äˤ˴ؤȯΤǤС줳˾ȻפäƤޤ
ֻҤϡȬɰ챧٤俯ά륹äȤڻ뤷ƤפȤŦϤäƤʤ褦˻פޤȤơθդ˹ȯȤΤ˻Ȥ줿Ȥ¸ƤޤƤ褬ܤˤ⤿餷Ȥ⽽ʬ򤷤ƤĤǤ
äθθȤ¿ϡȬɰ챧פ򤽤̣ȤƤȤ館ƤΤǤǤ䤿ˤϤθϤޤ󡣤餳θդΰ̣ɾɬפȻפޤ
Ȭɰ챧ΰ̣Ȥϡ
⤽Ȭɰ챧פΰ̣ϲʤΤǤ礦θ츻ϡŷĤ¨̤줿ݤ˺줿ȤֳึԤξۡʤߤȤΤˡפ̤ޤ

Ȭ(Τ)()Ʊ()Ȱ()ळȡ(ޤ)餺

ĤޤϡΤߤߤޤǤ⡢ҤȤĤβ²Τ褦ɤ餷ƤˤƤǤϤʤפȤǰǤξۤܽ񵪤Τ720ǯǡ¤1300ǯʾˡ̱֤ߤפȸƤǻߡʬ¾ͤפ¾嫤ڤˤ뤳²Υ롼ĤƤΤǤ
Ȭɰ챧פͽѰѤ˧ϺΡַפȤưѤޤˤϡ˧ϺϡŪեȤξħ٤ȸ줿̰쵱ή򤯤ȼԤǤϤʤפȤȽ򤤤ޤϤ򤷤Ƥޤ
ܺ긩ˤʿ¤˧ϺΤʿüض֡ϰե٤Ȳ¤ưϰҲפˤȡ¼Ϻ˼ȤߡƱưŸƤޤեȤȤꡢԵߺѤ٥뤲褦ȤͤǤϤʤäΤȤΤǤ
ˡȬɰ챧פϻΡսפˤ⵭ܤƤˡǥθȤʤäȤߤʤ줬Ǥλ郎ȯ뤭äˤʤäΤ⡢¼ϺǤä̤Ĺǯȶ³Ȥ˲ä1931ǯ1934ǯ綧ꡢο翩Ƹ꤬ˤʤޤ
򸫤ȡ¿ο͡礷ƹƤȬɰ챧פνФƤȤŪ¤⤫Ӿ夬ޤȬɰ챧פϺλˤäơ͡ߺѤ륹äȻפΤǤ
¿һܤϲäƤ⤤Τ
ϸҲˤƤϤޤޤȤϤˤľܻäƤʤƤ⡢ܤϥХܼβǷ㲽붥˾ˤ餵ƤΤǤ
ǻ316λͽѰǡߤΥХܼܤɤΩ񤦤٤䤷ޤȤܤǥӥͥŸפ򤢤Ƥˤ⤫餺ˡΧΤϤޤ̤äǶǼʤܤϤɤǤ礦ˡΧˤäưˡȤʤ¤ꡢäƤ⤤ΤǤ礦
ºݤ¿ҴȤˤǸװžפϿﲽƤꡢܼҤΨΤ㤤˰ܤȤ֥ݥ졼ȡСפФǤʤΨ㤤軰˿ƲҤΩȤ֥ӥ͡󡦥СפԤ褦ˤʤޤΤ褦DzΥƥ˥åϼ߽Ф졢ˡΧɤĤʤȤΤǤ
η̡ʧʤäǶΤ󤻤Ϲ̱˲դޤºݤOECD2013ǯ2˸ɽBEPSפˤСΤ褦ʴȤDzưϳƹǼ򸺾ҤƤϹΤΤؤοƤȤƤޤäˤαƶΤȯŸӾ²бĴȤʤɤǡƱϡǤϤ򤫼Ԥʧ褦ˤʤäפȤޤǵܤƤۤɤʤΤǤ
ϥХкѤβǤε뤫⤷ޤ󡣤ľԤ»ҲäƤϤΤǤ礦1ϤDzǤΤǤϤʤŪʶĴɬפǤˤϲäˡפȤΤˤĤƹդʤƤϤޤ󡣤ʤɤιǧҴŪʸǧ뤳ȤɬפʤΤǤ
θǰȬɰ챧פǤϤʤǤ礦16ͽѰǤΤȤƤͿޤϤ¾ޤΰѰ⡢ȽϾ夬ޤǤźջȼƤ̹𤷤ޤȤޤǤ
ޤμФۤΩäϺ̳꤬֤θդΤäƤ͡󤲤ơפȸƤӤƤ⡢2̾ۤɤ󤲤ޤǤȬɰ챧פϤǤ˺줿դʤΤǤ
λפ٤ǤϤʤ
餳Ϥθդΰ̣᤭ߡܤäƤ¡פ⤦ɤ餻ǯ12ˤBEPSץȤμȤߤˤĤƤȤޤȤ᤬ԤȤȤʤΤǡܤηλפȤ٤ǤϤʤȰܿ˿夲ΤǤ
Ȭɰ챧פɤȤ館뤫ϡܿͤϱʱ˸դˤȤĤŤ٤פȹͤ뤫뤤ϡۤơ̤פȹͤ뤫ˤäʬȤǤ礦ͽѰˤʤʤäΡȬɰ챧ȯϡΥǥˤʲ򤵤ƻޤ⤤󥹤Ȼפޤ
70ǯޤ餳⤦ˤľܤξͤ٤⤷ޤhttp://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/65369



Ȭɰ챧Ȥդ70ǯ2015ǯȤߥ󥰤ξǸ줿طʤˤϡ䤿ܤ̱ΰռѲϡظŻ٤˵줿ŷĥޥȥӥʿŷġˤȯ¤ŪϤȤ⤤٤⸫γึܤ¨̤ޤǤ򵭤οäѿȤܤˤ˻Ĥ줿ŷҤŷؤȤưʢˤȡ˽सηޤ줿ȴפȤδؤΰڷɤǰƤ뷳ΤεȤȤˡФ뤳Ȥʤ䤿ιưͤ˱ƶͿռ˨ꡣ

ظŻ٤ȡܽ񵪡١ʵˤ˵줿ʸޤ졢ܿ͡ΤäƤȬɰ챧Ȥʸ70ǯ褦ȤƤ롣罰⺣ǯ2015ǯ89濴ˡ70ǯȤ辡Υץѥ򡢤֤Ԥʤʤ顢䤿ܤ̱ϡˤäơȤǤäݿƻʻ礹뤳ȤīȾοʹ֤ܿͤȤꡢ²¤ʤɤȸäˤŪۤ򡢿ŷĤοäˤϤȤ缺ԤܤˤȤƲ򤹤褦ˤʤ桼饷ΦʥϥˤȤɬפʱڤ餻뤿ˤ֤줿Ȥϡܤ饹Ǥ뤳ȤȯܵĹθŻ亣ޤǤ˻֤ήȼä襤塼ʤȤʤ桼饷ΦʽФŷդǤϤʤȿƻȤĤΤղä޽Ȥλ˼ԤŪξƤľǤäܵĹʿưɽͤѾȿƻϡܤλϤοʹŪߵᤫޤ줿Τ˲᤮ʤܤϡܵĹȯƤظŻ٤Υ饹ȥϥκۤѾƤʤä

饹ȥϥȤκȯȤؤθΩ֤äܤιΡʤˤ˴ŤιϤܻؤȤ2015ǯ䤿ϵޤ줿ʹ֤ϳ¾ԤλʪåȤ⡢¾ԤʤळȤɬפȤʤΤŤϤǯǤ⤢롣


礭ʾдβ¤

SunSunīۤӤʤ顡

ʢ˿ѿη֤ݿǤȤ˴⤢ޤ
͡ήΤޤޤˡ߷ۤס2013ǯ1013

ѥ饪ˬ䤴ȯäƤŷŲΤȤСݶʿ27ǯ48ʿ
ǯ70ǯޤǤϡʿΤγϤˤƤ㤷ƮԤ졤Τ̿̿ޤĹ٤Ϥ뤭̿ȤȤʤä͡ΤȤšʤΡˤФޤ
ɤϤܤǯꡤؤݤ줿¿ο͡ξפĤġѥ饪¹ˬ䤤ޤ
ѥ饪¹ϡߥͥϢˮޡ綦¹ȶˡ켡ޤǤɥĤο̱ϤǤ륵ڤӹϢηˤ椬ΰǤβ֤ޤƥѥ饪ˤģ֤졤椬񤫤¿οܽ͡10ǯˤϡ̱ο¿5ͤĶ͡硹˽褦ˤʤޤ
ǯˤϡϰǷ㤷ƮԤ졤Ĥܷ̺դޤˬڥ塼⤽ΰĤǡ襤ˤܷ1͡Ʒ1700ͤԤФƤޤʿΤ⤫硹ǡΤ褦ᤷˤäȤ򡤻ɤϷ褷˺ƤϤʤʤȻפޤ
٤Υѥ饪¹ˬ䤬ξ֤ˤޤۤƤͧϴطΡʤȯŸ˴Ϳ뤳ȤǰꤷƤޤɤϡεˡϰ˴ʤäƤλԤ餹ȤȤˡѥ饪ο͡Ҥθˤ⤫餺ˡϤݡμʤɤ˿ϤƤȤФγղϤѥ饪̱ˡհդɽȻפäƤޤ
ˬ˺ݤߥͥϢˮڤӥޡ綦¹θ׺ʤɤΥѥ饪ˬ˹碌Ƹˤʤꡤѥ饪θ׺ʤȶˡڥ塼ˤƱԤƤ뤳Ȥ򿼤դƤޤ
ˡˬμ¸˸طԤοϤȤФդΰդɽޤ
http://www.kunaicho.go.jp/okotoba/01/speech/speech-h27e-palau.html#AIRPORT

Remarks by His Majesty the Emperor at the Time of Their Majesties' Departure for the Republic of Palau (April 8, 2015)
This year marks the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II, which brought fierce fighting to various parts of the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the loss of countless lives. Our thoughts go out to all those who went to the battlefields to defend their countries, never to return home.
In this milestone year, reflecting upon those many people who fell in battle, we will visit the Republic of Palau.
The Republic of Palau, along with the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands, was a German colony up through World War I. After that war, the Treaty of Versailles and the decision of the League of Nations placed those territories under the mandate of Japan. Palau became the site of Japan's South Seas Agency, and many people emigrated there from Japan. By around 1935, more than 50,000 Japanese nationals - a number greater than the native population - had come to live on those islands.
In 1944, the year before the end of the war, fierce battles took place in the region, and Japanese forces fought to their deaths on many islands. The island of Peleliu, which we will visit on this trip, was one of those islands. Some 10,000 Japanese soldiers and 1,700 American soldiers lost their lives there. We believe that we must never forget that those beautiful islands in the Pacific Ocean have such a tragic history.
It is our sincere hope that our visit to the Republic of Palau will contribute to the further development of the friendly cooperative relations that our nations have forged so far. While we are there, we will mourn and pay tribute to both the Japanese and Americans who perished in the region. At the same time, taking this opportunity, we wish to offer our heartfelt thanks to His Excellency the President and all the people of Palau, for, although they suffered the ravages of war themselves, the people of Palau worked hard after the war to care for the memorial cenotaphs and cemeteries and to collect the remains of the fallen.
We are deeply grateful that during our stay there, Their Excellencies the Presidents and First Ladies of the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands will also visit the Republic of Palau, joining His Excellency the President and the First Lady of the Republic of Palau on our trip to Peleliu.
Finally, we would like to express our deepest gratitude to all those who worked so hard to make this visit possible.
http://www.kunaicho.go.jp/e-okotoba/01/address/speech-h27e.html#AIRPORT

ξŲ ڥ塼׼԰
NHK 49 414ʬ
ξŲ ڥ塼׼԰1504090439壷ǯꡢʿȤʤäѥ饪ˬƤŷĹĹξŲϣϤΥڥ塼ˬ졢˲֤򶡤׼Ԥ֤ޤ
ͼ˥ѥ饪夷ξŲϡǤδ޹Ի󥲥׺ʤȤβ񸫤פȡˤϴޤդ˽ʤޤ
ʤǡŷŲϡ֤ѥ饪Ϥˤơɤ˴ʤä٤Ƥο͡餷ΰ²Ǥƻ򤷤ΤӤȻפޤפȽҤ٤ޤ
ξŲˬ䣲ܤΣս񤷤ݰģνإꥳץȯäơϤȤʤäơ褽ܷͤۤǤڥ塼ˬͤޤ
ơĤäʼ²⸫ʤܤƤʿ׼Ԥפܤ򤤵Ƥβ«򶡤ơԤ֤ޤξŲϡꥫΰˤ­򱿤ȡϿͤ¿ν̱ȸή뵡˵񤵤ޤ
ʿ׼Ԥ
ڥ塼üˤʿ׼Ԥפϡѥ饪硹դγʤɤ˴ʤä׼Ԥ뤿ᡢܤ£ǯ˷ƤǤ
ܤѤ˸Ƥơ֤ˤơʿΤνڤӳפ͡򤷤Τӡʿ¤ؤλפƤΩפȵƤޤ
׼Ԥΰ²䡢Τѥ饪ˬͤΤۤȤɤΰ­򱿤ӡ֤򶡤Ƥޤ
ǯˤĬΰʤɤޤܡ;ˤ錄칩ꡢ̤˽ޤ
ꥫΰ
ꥫΰϡڥ塼˾Φꥫμ⤬ܷȤδ֤Ƿ㤷Ʈ򷫤깭֥󥸥ӡפΤФ˷ƤƤơĤδ֤򤤽֤ͤƤޤ
ꥫϡƶĤѤ׺ɲܷη㤷񹳤ˤ;ɴͤ˾뵾ԤФޤ
ϡĤԤ򤵤Ƥ˷ƤƤȤȤǡ֥ڥ塼襤˴ʼΤεʱפʤɤȵƤޤ
http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20150409/k10010042381000.html

츩ȵܺ긩ʳŪ˶̤޾徺Ƥ롣ܤϻ䤿̱ˡλ֤˴ؤƷٹȯƤʤ2ϧθϧѿϴ89٤ã¤ʤʨƭ٤˶ŤƤ롣ʡ츶ȯϲɴȥͻdzʥǥ֥ˤʤΤ


礭ʾдǼʧäƻޤ礦

ī̴ΤȤǤäѹͤˡΧȤ졢Indeed he is poor, but you must not therefore despise him.ʤ˶򤫤˸ͤǤäƤäƤϤޤPlease try way harder to do your very best.ʾѿƺԤƤˡɤȸ꤫Ƥ롣ϥäȤơ"I can relate to it myself."줭ܤФޤΰ֡θ̣ä

ͤΰռ̤˽ޤ̿ݻƥबƯȤռΥХ󥹤Х󥹴ФǼ򥭥åռϡ籧ȿƤХ󥹤ȤunityȿΡˤˤꡢ̲δĶήХ󥹤롣STRAIGHTENING DEVICE̴Ȥ̴ήˤϣʳ롣

A)
B)ηä佼
C)̤ͽ

䤿ϡ̴ˤʤɤ餫ˤ롣
顢ĤǤžǤ롣


õʤϤƤ


Ĺͺֲ츩λȿΡʤ褷Ҥǡ˴˼Ĺ5ˡģǤϤʤƻΥϡС ӥ塼ۥƥDz̤ۥƥˤ1500̱̾ޤꡢλäĹϡ罰ŷԾ̾Űߤ˻ߤ󤷡ǯ12λ˽Ǥ˼ĹĹȲ̤ΤϽƤΤȤǤä

罰ŷԾ˴ؤϡŰߤǰ뤳Ȥŷ֤θ경ˤĤʤ롣濿¿λˡ˾ǧطˡ˴ŤΩƤ͡ȿʤƤפĹ֡ؽ͡٤Ȥդ٤Ȥ˼ĹλѤƷˡزμϿä٤ȸäǹ⸢ϼԥ饦̳λѤȽŤʤ롣̱ܤŤοϤФ˷ߤ뤳ȤϤǤʤפȶȽ1֤β̤Ϻǽ30ʬ30ʬǤäŷִϤϹ罰񷳤˽̱ӽƺäĹϻŦ̱Ϥå褹ϥϡΦ˰ȿƤ뤽

̵̱뤻ʤΤϡ罰ƸΤʤ顢ι԰٤ǧǽˤƤѿʥᥤ󡦥եˤϡ䤿ܤ̱ΰջפʤΤǤϤʤϤ¾ͻǤʤΤΥȥåס꡼ȽΰռˤϡܤǤʤȺޤƤ褦ǡץ饤١ȤäޤܲФ䤿̱Ʊ褦˲򰷤äƤʤĹ᤬ưԤä罰ͤ˽ŤͤơλˤϲѤ̤ʤ͡λ򥯥ꥹ饤ΤŷǤä

ĹݼȤ餷夭ˤϴư롣ۤȤƥ䥫Хåܡ󤬿ľкմ˼ĹǤϼ˸˷Ȥʹ֤ȤƤΥå󥹤ΰ㤤ǤΩƾǧμä˻֥ͥ륮Ȥļ³ƧǤ롣ס˸ݼȤλѤ˥ꤿʤƱˡƳԤȤƤοͺܤΥݥƥ󥷥IJ츩̱ϹȻפä轵̳ƻλˤơôݥƥ󥷥뤢ͺबԤ˸ʤ

ơˤ塼Ƥߤȱѹ⤫Ӿ夬ꡢݿ˱ѹ񤬿ͿƤȤʬ롣

ܤ1867ǯԤȤλ͡Ĺͤ濴Ȥ뿷ذܹԤƤä1868ǯ13βŰʸΩܡܡݿܤʤɤȻ䤿ϸƤӻϤ᤿ָǯ1872ǯΰ񲦡٤ϡܤˤΰͲפȤȤȤ˲²Ȥ졢ˤΰ̤ͤ֡ɽǤϡܤΰ岦٤ΰͤǤä夲̱ϲΤ1872ǯΤȤǤäȸ롣طʤˤϡ1871ǯ10ΰ̱郎롣

1871ǯ9򵬡1894ǯ7ޤǡˤϷФ줿Τǯ10ΰ岦μΤܤǯפǼƵӤˤĤܸšȬŻ4ɤΤܸ1ɤѶ᳤ߤɺ夷69ͤΤ3ͤŮ1̾ϹΤᤫˡѻ򤵤ޤä¸ԤΤ54̾Ѹ̱ˤäƻ줿ܤϡλФī˸ŹĤ⡢̱ϡֲ̱סʹεڤФʤԤˤǤȤīβäѤơܤ1874ǯѤطɸѽʼˡΤˡΰ夬ܤڤȤ줿ΤǤä

ΥǥܿͤǾ΢ΤǤϤʤä1872ǯʥ⥤ˤι罰λ̳Ƥ㡼륺른ɥ18301899ˤ罰ؤεϩܤΩäǤ̷Φ纴ȤƥȾdz⤷ˤΦھ̾ʵ餵ƤΥ른ɥ뤬ܤϲ󾧡ó̳ոפ른ɥϹ罰λο򼭤1872ǯ1212򤪤ӷȤܤ˸Ѥ줿1873ǯ21871ǯ10Ѥǵΰ̱νĤ̿ȷ̳äȤ̵ɸ줿른ɥ⤳˻áθĤʬŪ른ɥϰ³1874ǯѽʼνäƤ롣1875ǯܤ鷮ŸϤͿ줿ͤȤƺǽΤΤǤäǯ򤪤ӷο򼭤1890ǯޤǤ郎ںߤ編ſθĿŪʸ̳᤿θ塢1890ǯ1899ǯޤǡī⽡1897ǯˤθ̳᤿ֲ֤ε̲פȸƤФ줿ܻ¼18741945ˤϼ»ҡܥ˥ؤܿͽΥǥץޤߥΤΥĸ˥ץޥɥʤȤƳڲȤδزһҡ19041941ˤ¹ˤ롣ϼʤФ٤γ΢ɽ˰䤷̲ǼƤޤ37ФǤä
زһҤϡȬФǺޤƤ⡢β֤Τ褦ˤ路̾ϱʵ׾äΤʤȸޤһҤ̾ʵפݴɤƤɴǯǯȤȤ˿ͤοΤ餷ܤˤʤޤ褦ܷݽѤʳʤ餷Ʋޤ— زһҡ


ƻˤƤޤäƻ褦ܤѤʼΤ1874ǯǯ1875ǯ920αȹȤơī򵬤Фν縢ꤵ뤳ȤޤǶɯᥤ󡦥եϡإ18401842ˤȥ2إ衧18561860ˤǤä2ĤDZѹǰפǧᤵˤǺΤϡ1832ǯΩΥ㡼ǥ󡦥ޥ󾦲Jardine Matheson Holdings LimitedˤǤäإ̩͢αѹؤ͢ФΩμʶ̳ˤƤβҤϡߤ180ǯä⡢פιݥ󥰥ޥåȡʣȡˤȤƱƶϤäƤ롣1859ǯ峤Źˤѹͥꥢࡦå18341912ˤͤˡ֥㡼ǥ󡦥ޥ󾦲ײͻŹΩܤ˿ʽФ1档˵Ф㡦ķ򻰤ƱҲͻŹĹФƤȤۤͤϾʤꥢࡦå1863ǯĹͤ̾βǡʹ¿ʳˡƣǻƣʸˡ¼ȡʰ御ˤĹ޷ٱ礷ƱѹФϹҤˤϥ㡼ǥ󡦥ޥ󾦲ȤƤ

ΰĹϡ1859ǯ919˥ȡޥ֥졼С18381911ˤ֥㡼ǥ󡦥ޥ󾦲ĹŹȤơ֥СפΩ¾͡塦ȡۤˤŹ֤ϸͧͭ顦罡§Ĺ߷Ťʰʾ塢ˡζϡʳˡϺʻɩȶˤγαؤٱ硣ޤ嵭Ĺ޷αѹϹҤμ⤷Ƥ롣1868ǯݿ¤ʾε͢˴ؤʤܤȤδط򿼤⡢郎ʤʤäȤͤλڤäȤʤɤ1870ǯС˻༫ȤϹúۡʸ˴ġˤμ¼ŪбļԤȤܤ˺α1881ǯĻʧǻɩδϺúۤƤĹȤƷбĤä1885ǯʹߤϻɩȤƤбĴľ̤Ƥץ󥰡Х졼֥꡼κƷ˴ᡢʸۡǥ󥰥ˤδäۤ

Ϻ19231996ˤϡϻ˴ѤȸƤФΩˤⲽͥȤǤäʸŪ¤¿ܿͤ˻ٻ줿ˤ⤫餺˿ƤΤˤο¤ƤʤΤۤʬξ򤹤٤ƥߥåȤơܤΤäƤޤä͡Ƥ⡢ե꡼ᥤˤϿ뤳ȤϤʤäޤϪΤȤλŤȤΤλȤƤΤ줿ǷȤʪΤȤݤˤ⡢νŪϿ̤ͽưʤɥԥ奢̤ǤˤϤۤȤɿ褦ȤϤʤạ̈ϡ»ϺϿס1997ǯȬȨŹԡˤΡơ٤ޤˤܡסʸˡˤˤϡƤбī٤ꤵƾ36ǯ˽񤫤줿Τ롣бҤοβȷϤˤĤʤʪǤ뿷ʹһƱνWᤫȤƤȶ줿б²¦īˤб²ξˤĤƵƤ뤬ΤȤ򤹤٤ƽ񤭻ĤƤϤʤ褦ԥ奢򥹥ݥ뤷¤Υ줿ĤΤˤ䤿ܤ̱˥ץȤΤǤä

ޤݿܤθϡŻԤǤꡢ˸ʤƥꥹȤǤꡢιưη̤ȤƸϤˤ͡Ǥäˤϡܤ򳰹äȤռϤʤä褦ʬŪݿŪ1889ǯ˥ץζˡꡣ11ˤŷĥΦ㥹פȤʸˡ㸢ʤ˴ؤ̿ᡦ¹Ԥθ¤ϹˡΩˡΩƤ뤳Ȥݾ㤷ƤȤˡƤˡŪԴ̡άʹάȷάȤˤ԰סƤǽη߽Ф1945ǯؤȤ郎ƳƤޤäԻ׵ĤʤȤǤ뤳ȤϤʤäܤŷĤκߤޥåˤäƼ줿ΤϡΥƥݻ뤳Ȥǡ罰񤬴ǤȤutilityˤͥ褷̤Ǥä

ݿ1945ǯޤǡ1945ǯ82014ǯ8ޤǡơ2015ǯ4κŲΥѥ饪ˬ¸λή򡢤Ȥäƥ塼Ǥ˻䤿Ƥ롣ʿ̾դ줿罰ܤδ֤ϡǯ˽ȤƤ롣

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