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ƥ˥륪ץ ֤ҷ辡 Ϥϣǯ֤ͥʤ餺
NHK 2019ǯ126 1425ʬ
ƥ˥λ륪ץ֤ϡҥ󥰥륹η辡Ԥ졢ϷϥԤ졢ǯ֤ͥϤʤޤǤ
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֤ƥ˥νҥ󥰥륹ǡ󥭥󥰣̤ξϡ륪ץη辡ˣǯϢ³ǿʤߡ󥭥󥰣̤ΥΥǥǡǥե路ޤ

ϥѥ̣ȤǥեȤǤ裱åȤ򣰡裲åȤ򣲡ݣǼåȥȣУΥȥ졼ȤԤ졢ǯ֤ͥϤʤޤǤ

ϵǯΤĤǷ辡˿ʤߡ٤ƥǥե路ʩץǤͥΤΡ륪ץƥץԤޤ

ˤȤäơǥեιάǯ˹ѥԥåζ˸礭ʥȤʤꤽǤ

˻ҥ󥰥륹󥭥󥰣̤ι޿ϡ24ν辡Ԥ죲ϢƤƨޤ


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NHK 2019ǯ128 122ʬ
ƥ˥λ륪ץʤϽƤ̤ͥ󥭥󥰤ǡ˽̤ƥǽƥ󥰥륹ǣ̤Ȥʤ뤳Ȥꤷޤ®֤϶ȥŪ21Ф륪ץͥƳΤϡߤ˿ʲᡢ줿ǴȾ鶯Ǥ

Υƥ˥ϡ򥷡󡢤ޤǤ礭Ѥޤ

϶֤䥷åȤäѥƥ˥顢꡼³ƹΥ󥹤ԤġֲΥƥ˥פȤˤĤơƥץܥƥ˥ƤȤʤΥ󥰥륹ͥȤ뤲ޤ

θ塢󥪥դäϤǴ궯ץ졼ᡢ饱åȤ򰮤֤򸺤餷ƥDzᤴ֤䤹ʤɡȾȤζ¿λ֤䤭ޤ

飳飵ī˥󥰤˼ȤۤȾȤζϥåפϤ졢֥åץ쥹פȸƤФüʴȤäȥ졼˥󥰤Ǥϡ300Ķ뤪ξ­ϤDz夲褦ˤʤޤ

ơפǽλ륪ץ󡣤Ȥ˶Ǥ̣ν辡路꡼ʡץꥷ女ꡢ辡ꡢڥȥ顦ӥȥ϶ȥ礭˿줿̤Ǥ⡢äȾȤ֤뤳ȤϤʤǴ궯äƥݥȤŤͤޤ

Υ꡼ǤξΨϵǯ٤˾夬ꡢܰʾΥ꡼ǤξΨϡʿѤǵǯ32󤫤54ؤ礭夷ޤ

ơ꡼äȤϡ̤ˤץ饹αƶڤܤޤ

ͥװΣĤȤƥȥ줿Ȥ󤲡줬ץ졼μˤĤʤꡢޤǤŪƤޤ褦ʶ̤ǤƧߤȤɤޤ󥿥ΰˤĤʤäȿ֤äƤޤ

ˡʲ򸫤ΤդΥ֤Ǥ֤ϡդδ֤˵̤ǤѲäΤǡȥ夲ݤ˺򲼤̤褦˾夲եफ顢뤿ޤä夲եѤۤΥХꥨ䤹˼Ȥߤޤ

ơϾɤǡΥ֤ζޤ

꤬ȤΥӥ˥֥졼ݥȤ򰮤줿̤ǤΥեȥ֤Ψϡǯʿ46󤫤57ؤȸ夷Ƥޤ辡Ǥ⡢֥졼ݥȤޤǤȣݥȤȤʤä̤ǡ®λ®192Υ֤ǥӥåɤǤζ򸫤ƻή󤻤ޤ

ˡեȥ֤ʤäǤ⡢Ƥɥ֤Υιפ̤ȯޤ꤬ɥ֤򼴤˥ݥȤåäϡʿѤǵǯ42󤫤麣49˾徺辡Ǥ֥졼ݥȤ򰮤줿̤ǡIJž򤫤⤯ķͤ륻ɥ֤ǥԥ򤷤Τޤ

㡦Х󥳡ĤǤ­ʤߤߡפɾꡣ륪ץͥ˿ɸȤƷǤΤϡ裲ڤΥ졼ȤǹԤʩץͥפǤ

ǽλǤޤǤΥȥ졼˥󥰤˳ΤʼĤ꤬ʩץǤɤΤ褦襤򸫤ƤΤԤޤޤ


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111ΡֹֽϤεˤ뤴ʹ֡פˡܽͤΡ1942ǯ1ܳػαˤΡȱ֤ϤǤ򼣤 ٤ꤵ줿ΤޤPD-1Τˤ뤬Ťʬפ򤫤Ƥޤ򷹤ޤ礦
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ǯΰؤοˤäƥҥȤʿѼ̿ӡܿͽ87С81Ф𤵤ƤޤΤ褦ĹҲޤ褫βǤ֤ɤΤ褦˹ʡ뤫פǤϤʤ֤ɤΤ褦ˤƹʡʻޤ뤫פȤȤפʲȤʤäƤޤޤ¿οͤ¤ˤ餺ޤȴäƤȻפޤǰʤ顤ʬοͤ¤˴ʤޤ椬Ǥ»Ǥ⤬30ᡤǯ100ͤˤȿǤ졤40ͤ˴ʤäƤޤޤ͸ι𲽤ȶˤȯɼԿȻ˴ԿǯäƤޤ

μˡ˿뤲Ƥꡤ󴵼ԤǤ5ǯʾ¸Ψ9110ǯʾ¸ͤޤ󡣤ˤ¡٤Τ褦5ǯ¸Ψ10̤40٤ȼӤ㤤⤢ޤޤǤΤˡϡŪѡȼ͵ڤӹͿήǤ黰Ĥμˡ򡤤μʹ٤ˤäȤ߹碌ƼŤޤԹˤƼŤȤʤäԤζ줷ߤʹ뤳ȤˤäơϺǤⶲ¤¿οͤͤƤޤ

Ȥ2011ǯ2014ǯˤƼʬȱϤ뤳Ȥˤ뿷ˡѲޤȱˡϽΤˡʤäλĤ礭ʡ⤿餷ޤ˽ˡǤ˾ߤʤä󴵼ԤΤ2030󤬵ߤ줿ȡϤθ̤ϰöϤͿߤ᤿Ȥǯʾ³뤳ȡ軰Ѥ¾μˡ٤ƤϤ뤫˷ڤʬդ򤹤нŤѤǶ줷ळȤˤʤäȤȤǤ

γ׿ŪŤǽˤȱ֤ϤȤϿ볰Ũʤٶݤ䥦륹Τ褦¸Τ򸫤Ĥƹ⤷ӽϤǤΤȱֺ˦ʤѵϼʬΤκ˦ʬȳŨȤΤ鷺ΰ㤤̤ƻ뤷ӽǤʪ󥵡Ƥޤޤȱ֤ϰٽвä¸Τ򵭲Ƥꡤ˽вäˤû֤ǶϤʹϤİʪ󥵡ʤΤޤŷͽɤʤɤ˥說󤬸̤ΤϤΤ褦ʹͶƳ뤳ȤǤ뤫ǤҥȤޥʤɤưʪİʪ󥵡μ¿ޤ̵¤Τ褦Ǥ㤨С͹Ū˺äʪ򥿥ѥȷ礵ƹȤƥޥȡޤưʪʲβǤ٤вäȤʤȻפ벽ʪ˷礹빳ΤꡤޤǤޤ¤줿Ҥĥޥʤɤưʪޤ̵¤ΰʪ󥵡ǽϤĤΤ褦ʸݤϡ20Ⱦʪؤˤ礭Ǥ

1970ǯʹߤʬʪؤȯŸˤꡤ椬ۤܲޤޤ˦ѵ夬ޤ˰ҤԽꡤѵ头Ȥ˰ۤʤäʪ󥵡Ĥ褦ˤʤޤη̡Ͱͤ¿¿ͤʰʪ󥵡Υѡȥ꡼븶ΤˤȯޤƹΥ롼פʤǤȤRAG-1RAG-2ȯޤҤ٤褦ŷ說ʤɤͿˤäƹȤߤ̤Ǥ䤿2000ǯ˹ɷˤäAIDȤǤȯʪ󥵡ʤΤΰҤ˿Ѳ߹߰ʪ󥵡εǽ뤳Ȥȯޤ̵̤ۤ¤ȤפҤѲƺʪ󥵡λȤߤϡ5ǯưʪʲβdzΤǤưʪθϷȤƸ¸ƤĥᥦʥAID跿ιǤƯǥѵǤΥѡȥ꡼ˤؤޤRAG-1RAG-2ϹŹؿʲʳdz줿ǤǤҥȤưʪȱַϤRAG-1RAG-2AID󷲤ιǤƯǰʪ󥵡ҤΥѡȥ꡼ꤵѲʥƥʤĥ餻ƿ볰Ũƻ뤷ӽ뤳ȤǤޤ

ΤߤξϤηǤ⤷Τ褦ʥ󥵡ʬκ˦ְäŨǧȿ򤷤ˤϽµ˻뤳ȤޤäơȱַϤƯˤϡư֤Τ褦ˡȥ֥졼ɬפǤ򤹤ʬҤϥ󥵡ʪޤƱĴƯȱֺ˦ϳޤȱȿޤ뤿ˡΥ֥졼ʬҤ¸ߤޤϼư֤㤨ʤС־ˤѡ󥰥֥졼CTLA4ƻϩ˻Ȥڥ֥졼PD-1ȸƤФʬҤǤPD-1ϻ䤿1992ǯȯ6ǯƤ줬ȱȿΥ֥졼Ǥ뤳Ȥ餫ˤޤ

ȱַϤδƻ륷ƥϤ˦館ӽǤϤͽۤƤޤ¿θԤαǯϤˤ⤫餺ȱַϤȤäƤ򼣤ȤߤޤǤͳȤƤϡԤȱ֤ΥƧळȤˤ뤬Ť˽椷ƤΤǤ¤Ϥ˦ȱ֤˥֥졼Ƥιƨ뤳Ȥ礭ʼˤʤäƤΤǤդ˹ͤȡʬΤ˦ޤƤ礭ʼˤʤȱ֤ϤǻƤΤǤ¡¡ܿĹȱޤѤͤǤϤȯΨܤ10ܰʾ⤯ʤޤȯۤѤƥƧ߹ΤǤϤʤ֥졼򳰤Ƥ뤳ȤˤäȱϤ򶯲ŤȤߤAllisonΤˤä1996ǯ𤵤ޤϡCTLA4˷礷֥֥졼ʤ빳ΤȤäƤŤǽʤȤޥǾޤCTLA4Ȥ֥֥졼˲ޥȱϤ˽ˤƶμȱ־ɾ򵯤Τǡ4֤5֤ǻǤޤޤPD-1֥졼˲ޥǤƻϩˤƤΥ󥸥֥졼μưưѤƯΤ褦˼ȱ־ɾϤäȡɽ˸ޤΤȤCTLA4ޤȶѤҥȤˤϻȤʤǽȹͤơ䤿2002ǯPD-1֥졼ʤ빳ΤȤäƤμŤǤ뤳ȤޥǾޤ

ǻPD-1֥졼ʤ빳ΤȤäƥҥȤΤŤ˱Ѥ뤳ȤͤȤζϤޤ2002ǯʳǤȱϤǤ򼣤ߤǯԤϢ³äǡ֥֥졼򳰤ȱϤ򶯲Ƥ򼣤פȤȯۤ˳ȯ򤹤Ȥ鳧̵ǤƹΥ٥㡼ȤɤõܤƱ򿽤ФƤơ2006ǯҥȤоݤȤ׾ϤޤޤޤʤPD-1ΤϡðŪʸ̤򼨤Ȥ餫Ȥʤޤ2012ǯˤ٤󡤥ΡޤȤ椬󡤿դԤ20󤫤30ͭȤȯɽޤˡ¿ΤȤäΤϡμŤԤͭǤäԤؤͿߤƤ⡤ȯʤäȤȤǤѤݾɡIJʤɤμȱ¤ޤޤʤɤ٤ƶˤƷڤޤѤ⥹ƥɤˤäƼŤǽǤޤθ塤ѼƬ󡤰ߤʤɤǼ׾Ԥ졤⽾ιޤͭǤ뤳ȤޤCTLA4ΤϤ᤯2004ǯΡޤФ׾ͭ졤2011ǯ˼ȤǧĤޤPD-1Τ2014ǯˤϤΡޤμȤƾǧ졤ߡ٤󡤿դIJ󡤥ѼƬ󡤰ߤʤ12ʾ˻ȤȤǧƤޤCTLA4ΤͽۤɤѤñȤǤϥΡޤΤߤǤPD-1ΤȤʻѤǤ٤󡤿դIJؤμŤξǧԤޤ

ʤ˦ȱֺ˦ˤäưʪǧΤȤͳϡǯΤ˦ΰҲϤη̤餽βޤʤ˦ϵ®ʬ򷫤֤1˦1000Ĥ1Ĥ͡ʰҤ˽Ĥη̼ʬκ˦Ȥϰ㤦¼Ū˰ʪ˦ѤΤȱַϤΰʪ󥵡館졤ӽΤǤưʪ¸ΤȤ襤οʲβdz̤ʰʪ󥵡ƥब˦ӽˤΩĤȤȤ곰ΥܡʥȸäƤɤǤ礦ߡPD-1Τˤ뼣Ťϡޤޤоݤ򹭤ǶᡤҤ˹٤Ѳ뤬ƼоݤˤɤƹFDAǧĤۤܤ٤ƤΤ˻ȤȤʤޤ

PD-1֥졼򳰤ˡǤ٤ƤΤ󴵼ԤߤȤȤˤʤäǤϤޤ󡣻ǰʤ顤ҥȤȸʤҥȤޤޤڤȤϸͤˤäƤϼȱ¤ȤѤȤ⤢ޤ

ߡ¿θԤPD-1ΤȳƼμˡȤȹ礻ǼŸ̤򤢤褦ȤƤޤ㤨С̤ιޤ̤ȼͤȤȤ߹碌PD-1Τθ̤ع褦ȻߤƤޤޤCTLA-4PD-1ʳμ夤֥졼ȯ졤򳰤ȤߤƤޤޤãȱֺ˦դޤPD-1Τȹ礻뤳ȤˤäưؤμŸ̤뤳Ȥޥμ¸ǼޤPD-1Ȳ餫ޤȤȤ߹碌ˤ뤬Ť׾ΤΤϸ1000ˤڤǤޤ

ҥȤȸʤҥȤȤμ̤ˤĤƤ¿椬ԤƤޤ˽Ҥ٤ޤ褦ˤ˦ˤΰѰۤѤưʪΤ褦ˤʤäˤɤޤ⤦ҤȤĽפʤȤϴԤ󼫿ȤȱϤɤǤҥȤȱϤ麹̤Ǥ㤨СƱե륨󥶥륹˴ȤƤ⤯ߤɡǺѤͤȡ40ٶᤤǮǾˤäƤϻ˻ͤ⤤ޤȱϤ˴ؤҤ϶餯ɴ⤢ꡤҥȤDNAĴ٤뤳ȤˤäƤοͤȱϤɤȽꤹ뤳ȤưפǤϤޤ󡣤ǡȱֺ˦͡ʥѥȯɸˤơ褦ȤϤãޤ¿θԤˤäƹԤƤޤޤΤȤΤʻɸϤޤΩƤޤ

2016ǯˡNew ScientistɤȤѹβʳػϡֲ桹Ϻˤڥ˥ȯȤ⤤٤ˤפȽҤ٤ƤޤεǤϡɤμŤ˷ŪʥѥȤͿΤϥڥ˥ڥ˥ˤäƤ٤ƤδɼŤ櫓ǤϤʤθ岿ǯˤڤ¿οͤϤˤäƼȿʪȯ졤ˤϴɤܹۤ줿ȤȤơPD-1Τˤ뤬Ťοˤ꤬졤ï⤬¤餫ʻޤΤǤϤʤȼƤޤ̴¸뤳Ȥڤ˴äƤޤ

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2019/01/18 06:00
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ƱĮϡΤ󣷳䤬ѤǡߡפӤܰߤλϡȤȡԿǹͻؤߺݤϤ᤿󣴣ǯ³Ƥ֤ߤʤ١դߥƥפϡǯȰ仺ˤʤäƤ롣
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ǯˡߴˤפ
ˡߤùޤǰӤߴξʲߤλϤȤΤ褦ˤʤꡢä߼򡢥塼ߥࡢߥåפʤɤβùʤ¿ߤ˷礫ʤɬʤȤäƤ
ǯˤϡߴǤˤפꤷǯˤϡߤǷ򹯤ΤޤפĮ̱ߴ򿩤٤褦Ư³Ƥ

ߴ줿ˤ򿩤٤뤳Ȥ侩Įߤξ¥Ĥġǽι⤤򹯿ʤʤΤǷʤޤꤿȤפǤ󡢤ˤߴʤƤ⡢ȳ§ϤޤסʤߤʤĮôԡ

ΡߤפˤϡѡˡߴˤѤêߤꡢĮξعߴΤˤäƿ٤»ܤƤ롣

ĮξعǤߴ˿٤褦̵󶡤⤷ƤޤסФôԡ

ޤ߾ˤߴҤդǤ߿ݤȤäԤߴҤȤ˽Ф߿ݤ˴ޤޤݥեΡˤ⡢륹Ϥ̤ǧƤ뤿
ݰ侮عǤ侩̽ˤ߿ݤ֤Ƥ롣Į̱Ϥ򣷡ܤ᤿դǤ³Ƥ롣Įߤк٤˶ĮɤθưϤ
onigiri_chirashi[1]onigirijorei[1]
http://www.town.minabe.lg.jp/docs/2016053100015/files/onigirijorei.pdf

ڻ¿ʤ±˥åα⤬Ƥ褦ǤɤήԤˤΤǤ礦٤䥤ե륨󥶤ϲͳäƤäƤ˰㤤ޤ󤬡äƤޤȡ¤ˤĤ餤Ǥ͡
ʬˡĤ


õʥϥƥ


Self-Defense ForcesˤϡַˡϡWar potentialˡפǤϤʤֹˡηMilitaryˡפǤɤȤåꤷե졼ϡıϯ1968ǯˤΥ֥ءʿ¹ۡפˤؼԡ٤ΡַȤƤμιס2018ǯ0910ˤǶƤޤǤhttp://shinodahideaki.blog.jp/archives/28464955.html

4ǯ53ηˡǰˡξʸǡʿ·ˡװơ٤񤤤ơ9Ĥޤ
ʿ·ˡħܹˡ9ϸߡܹ̱ϡĴȤʿ¤¤˴ᤷ񸢤ȯưȡϤˤҳϤιԻȤϡʶ褹ʤȤƤϡʵפˤ롣2)Ūã뤿ᡢΦ¾Ϥϡݻʤθ︢ϡǧʤפȤʤäƤ뤬96֤ηˡβϡƵıİλʬʾλǡ񤬡ȯĤ̱ƤƤξǧФʤФʤʤξǧˤϡ̤ι̱ɼϹκݹԤϤɼˤơβȾλɬפȤ롣 2)ˡˤĤξǧФȤϡŷĤϡ̱̾ǡηˡȰΤΤȤơľˤۤפβ³ʤơܹˡ򸽼¤¨Ѥ˲

9ܹ̱ϼμ縢ݻ¾˸︢ͭ롣Ūã뤿ᡢΦ¾Ϥϡݻ롣ʤ顢¾񤫤䤿ؤϤιԻȤ䤿Ϲ񸢤ȯưϱʵפˤ(The Japanese people will be recognized the right of belligerency of the state as our own sovereignty and justify our sovereign relationship with other nations. In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will be maintained. However, except the threat with use of force from other nation(s) to us, we forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation.) ʤ顢ʿ·ˡȤ˸ؤΤˤʤ
ʢޤĹˤäơܤγ򴱤伫ⴴǡ⤬¾ηǤʤ顢ˤϤǤϤʤȤƤˡŪǧȱѤϤǤʤΤƤ¤롣¤Ȥ̷϶ˤŤ餤ȤǤä˰㤤ʤܹˡ9ȼδطɼԤ¥³Ƥ͡Ϥȶϫ˺ƤϤʤܹˡʸ𤹤ʤ顢Self-Defense Force ̾Self-Defense OrganizationȤ92˵줿Φ¾Ϥϡݻʤפ˺ŬǤä9ܹˡΥͥkernelˤǤꡢڥ졼ƥ󥰥ƥ OS ˤȤʤʬʤΤ顢ͥϼؤ뤳ȤǤޤ󡢤ȸڤΤ⥹ޡȤΤ褦ʥȡ󡦥åܹˡ92ʸԤˤɬסʿ·ˡ˥ݡȤåͤƤߤ
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ήΤޤޤˡ2015ǯ0503 http://way6.livedoor.blog/archives/53112048.html

ˡ9θʸϡAspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes. In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.פǤܹˡݻػߤƤΤϡland, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potentialΦ¾ϡˡפǤꡢַMilitaryˡפǤϤޤ󡣼Self-Defense ForcesˤȤƤForce ǤˡΡthe threat or use of force as means of settling international disputesʹʶ褹ʤȤƤϤˤҳϤιԻȡˡפΤϤȤƤForceǤϤʤΤǤǤ顢ʸ̾ Self-Defense Force ̾ Self-Defense OrganizationȤ褤ȹͤƤޤ

˲ΡŷĤϡΩܡUnarmed neutral JapanˡפǤϤʤܤȹ罰ȤΰݾSecurity Between Japan and the United StatesˡפʤäΤͻǤܤζϤβǽ᤿ϤؤŤ᤿̤ˤϰ㤤ޤ󤬡ͤޤȤޤ꼡衢åפƤޤڤߤ🎶


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ĤǤδȤܤμǾ̱ΤλƳԤʤɣ٤Ʋ˽ޤ뤳Ȥˤʤ롣ףʣǣˤμǾǻäΤϰܿȥ륱ȼꡢư˼ΣͤΤߤȤʤ롣
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ĴңɣȣӥޡåȤΥեΥߥȡʥޥ󡦥١٥ϡ֥ܥǤϳԾʵ®˴ؤ붯԰´濴Ȥʤ븫̤פȻŦ
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